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Cell Clearance Laboratory


journal club


  • Innate recognition of apoptotic cells: novel apoptotic cell-associated molecular patterns revealed by crossreactivity of anti-LPS antibodies
  • Identification of two evolutionarily conserved genes regulating processing of engulfed apoptotic cells
  • Stabilization of apoptotic cells: generation of zombie cells
  • Diversification of TAM receptor tyrosine kinase function
  • Control of signaling-mediated clearance of apoptotic cells by the tumor suppressor p53
  • A novel mechanism of generating extracellular vesicles during apoptosis via a beads-on-a-string membrane structure
  • Polarization of prostate cancer-associated macrophages is induced by Milk Fat Globule-EGF Factor8 (MFG-E8)-mediated efferocytosis
  • A TRP channel in the lysosome regulates large particle phagocytosis via focal exocytosis
  • Erythropoeitin signaling in macrophages promotes dying cell clearance and immune tolerance
  • The TAM receptor Mertk protects against neuroinvasive viral infection by maintaining blood-brain barrier integrity
  • Lysosomal disorders drive susceptibility to tuberculosis by compromising macrophage migration
  • 12/15-lipoxygenase orchestrates the clearance of apoptotic cells and maintains immunologic tolerance
  • Blebs produced by actin-myosin contraction during apoptosis release damage-associated molecular pattern proteins before secondary necrosis occurs
  • Macrophages redirect phagocytosis by nonprofessional phagocytes and influence inflammation
  • Noncanonical autophagy promotes the visual cycle
  • Overexpression of MERTK Receptor Tyrosine Kinase in Epithelial Cancer Cells Drives Efferocytosis in a Gain-of-Function Capacity
  • Apoptotic Cells Can Induce Compensatory Cell Proliferation through the JNK and the Wingless Signaling Pathways
  • Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages induces novel signaling events leading to cytokine-independent survival and inhibition of proliferation: activation of Akt and inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2
  • Apoptotic Cells Activate the “Phoenix Rising” Pathway to Promote Wound Healing and Tissue Regeneration
  • Efferocytosis Fuels Requirements of Fatty Acid Oxidation and the Electron Transport Chain to Polarize Macrophages for Tissue Repair
  • Clearance by microglia depends on packaging of phagosomes into unique cellular compartment
  • Efferocytosis perpetuates substance accumulation inside macrophage populations
  • Efferocytosis of apoptotic alveolar epithelial cells is sufficient to initiate lung fibrosis
  • Apoptotic cell clearance by bronchial epithelial cells critically influences airway inflammation


  • G-protein coupled receptor BAI3 promotes myoblast fusion in vertebrates
  • Zinc and Zinc Transporters in Macrophages and Their Roles in Efferocytosis in COPD
  • The Pallbearer E3 Ligase Promotes Actin Remodeling via RAC in Efferocytosis by Degrading the Ribosomal Protein S6
  • Tim4- and MerTK-Mediated Engulfment of Apoptotic Cells by Mouse Resident Peritoneal Macrophages
  • Glucocorticoids enhance prolonged clearance of apoptotic cells by upregulating liver X receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ and UCP2
  • Eph/ephrin reverse signalling induces axonal retraction through RhoA/ROCK pathway
  • Apoptotic cells trigger a membrane-initiated pathway to increase ABCA1
  • PDR-1/hParkin negatively regulates the phagocytosis of apoptotic cell corpses in Caenorhabditis elegans.
  • Macrophage autophagy plays a protective role in advanced atherosclerosis
  • Reticulocalbin-1 Facilitates Microglial Phagocytosis
  • MicroRNA-34a Negatively Regulates Efferocytosis by Tissue Macrophages in Part via SIRT1
  • Engulfment of Apoptotic Cells by Macrophages: A Role of MicroRNA-21 in the Resolution of Wound Inflammation
  • Myeloid-Epithelial-Reproductive Receptor Tyrosine Kinase and Milk Fat Globule Epidermal Growth Factor8 Coordinately Improve Remodeling After Myocardial Infarction via Local Delivery of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
  • Components of the Engulfment Machinery Have Distinct Roles in Corpse Processing
  • The role of autophagy emerging in postinfarction cardiac remodeling
  • MicroRNA-126 overexpression rescues diabetes-induced impairment in efferocytosis of apoptotic cardiomyocytes
  • Elimination of Pseudomonas aeruginosa through Efferocytosis upon Binding to Apoptotic Cells
  • Myeloid receptor CD36 is required for early phagocytosis of myocardial infarcts and induction of Nr4a1-dependent mechanisms of cardiac repair
  • CAMKIIY suppresses an efferocytosis pathway in macrophages and promotes atherosclerotic plaque necrosis
  • The Axl receptor tyrosine kinase is a discriminator of macrophage function in the inflamed lung
  • Macrophage Smad3 Protects the Infarcted Heart, Stimulating Phagocytosis and Regulating Inflammation
  • Exogenous CXCL4 infusion inhibits macrophage phagocytosis by limiting CD3 signalling to enhance post-myocardial infarction cardiac dilation and mortality


  • STAT1-regulated lung MDSC-like cells produce IL-10 and efferocytose apoptotic neutrophils with relevance in resolution of bacterial pneumonia
  • Responses of macrophages to the danger signals released from necrotic cells
  • Expression of the vault RNA protects cells from undergoing apoptosis
  • Listeria monocytogenes exploits efferocytosis to promote cell-to-cell spread
  • PPAR- senses and orchestrates clearance of apoptotic cells to promote tolerance
  • Additive roles for MCP-1 and MCP-3 in CCR2-mediated recruitment of inflammatory monocytes during Listeria monocytogenes infection
  • The role of C1q in recognition of apoptotic epithelial cells and inflammatory cytokine production by phagocytes during Helicobacter pylori infection
  • Macrophage SR-BI mediates efferocytosis via Src,PI3K,Rac1 signaling and reduces atherosclerotic lesion necrosis
  • Engulfment pathways promote programmed cell death by enhancing the unequal segregation of apoptotic potential
  • Critical roles for CCR2 and MCP-3 in monocyte mobilization from bone marrow and recruitment to inflammatory sites
  • CD47-blocking antibodies restore phagocytosis and prevent atherosclerosis
  • Ly6C+ monocyte efferocytosis and cross-presentation of cell-associated antigens
  • Apoptosis Triggers Specific, Rapid, and Global mRNA Decay with 30 Uridylated Intermediates Degraded by DIS3L2
  • Inactivation of Rab11a GTPase in Macrophage Facilitates Phagocytosis of Apoptotic Neutrophils
  • Coordinated balance of Rac1 and RhoA plays key roles in determining phagocytic appetite
  • Calreticulin Release at an Early Stage of Death Modulates the Clearance by Macrophages of Apoptotic Cells
  • Requirement of Gamma-Carboxyglutamic Acid Modification and Phosphatidylserine Binding for the Activation of Tyro3, Axl, and Mertk Receptors by Growth Arrest-Specific 6
  • Macrophage-Derived Protein S Facilitates Apoptotic Polymorphonuclear Cell Clearance by Resolution Phase Macrophages and Supports Their Reprogramming
  • Nonvesicular phospholipid transfer between peroxisomes and the endoplasmic reticulum
  • Identification of a Substrate-binding Site in a Peroxisomal β-Oxidation Enzyme by Photoaffinity Labeling with a Novel Palmitoyl Derivative
  • Hypoxia inducible factor 1α in vascular smooth muscle cells promotes angiotensin II-induced vascular remodeling via activation of CCL7-mediated macrophage recruitment
  • Coupling of β2 integrins to actin by a mechanosensitive molecular clutch drives complement receptor­mediated phagocytosis


  • CDK5-mediated phosphorylation and autophagy of RKIP regulate neuronal death in Parkinson’s disease
  • After shrinkage apoptotic cells expose internal membrane-derived epitopes on thier plasam membranes
  • Enhanced efferocytosis of apoptotic cardiomyocytes through myeloid-epithelial-reproductive tyrosine kinase links acute inflammation resolution to cardiac repair after infarction
  • Eph receptor tyrosine kinases regulate astrocyte cytoskeletal rearrangement and focal adhesion formation
  • The oncogenic microRNA miR-21 promotes regulated necrosis in mice
  • Efferocytosis Is an Innate Antibacterial Mechanism
  • Impaired cell death and mammary gland involution in the absence of Dock1 and Rac1 signaling
  • STIM1 juxtaposes ER to phagosomes, generating Ca²⁺ hotspots that boost phagocytosis
  • Virion-associated phosphatidylethanolamine promotes TIM1-mediated infection by Ebola, dengue, and West Nile viruses
  • Phosphoinositide 3-kinase enables phagocytosis of large particles by terminating actin assembly through Rac/Cdc42 GTPase-activating proteins
  • Boosting apoptotic cell clearance by colonic epithelial cells attenuates inflammation in vivo
  • Glutamine Triggers Acetylation-Dependent Degradation of Glutamine Synthetase via the Thalidomide Receptor Cereblon
  • Cereblon negatively regulates TLR4 signaling through the attenuation of ubiquitination of TRAF6
  • The Cullin 4A/B-DDB1-Cereblon E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Complex Mediates the Degradation of CLC-1 Chloride Channels
  • Rab17 mediates differential antigen sorting following efferocytosis and phagocytosis
  • DNA methylation governs the dynamic regulation of inflammation by apoptotic cells during efferocytosis
  • ORAI2 modulates store-operated calcium entry and T cell-mediated immunity
  • Ca2+ Signaling but Not Store-Operated Ca2+ Entry Is Required for the Function of Macrophages and Dendritic Cells
  • Phosphatidylserine Exposure Controls Viral Innate Immune Responses by Microglia
  • Lupus-like autoimmune disease caused by a lack of Xkr8, a caspase dependent phospholipid scramblase
  • Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cell Engulfment Reveals Metastatic Advantage in Breast Cancer


  • CD300b regulates the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells via phosphatidylserine recognition
  • ICAM-1 suppresses tumor metastasis by inhibiting macrophage M2 polarization through blockade of efferocytosis
  • Ex Vivo and In Vitro Effect of Serum Amyloid A in the Induction of Macrophage M2 Markers and Efferocytosis of Apoptotic Neutrophils
  • Sigma 1 receptors inhibit store-operated Ca2+ entry by attenuating coupling of STIM1 to Orai1
  • STIM1 overexpression promotes colorectal cancer progression, cell motility and COX-2 expression
  • Amplification of CRAC current by STIM1 and CRACM1 (Orai1)
  • Enhanced efferocytosis by dendritic cells underlies memory T cell expansion and susceptibility to autoimmune disease in CD300f deficient mice
  • Noncononical autophagy inhibits the autoinflammatory, lupus-like response to dying cells
  • MerTK receptor cleavage promotes plaque necrosis and defective resolution in atherosclerosis
  • Mitochondrial Fission Promotes the Continued Clearance of Apoptotic Cells by Macrophages
  • Erythrocyte efferocytosis modulates macrophages towards recovery after intracerebral hemorrhage
  • NADPH oxidase activation regulates apoptotic neutrophil clearance by murine macrophages
  • Undertaker, a Drosophila Junctophilin, Links Draper-Mediated Phagocytosis and Calcium Homeostasis
  • Differential regulation of Ca2+ influx by ORAI channels mediates enamel mineralization
  • Overexpression of MERTK Receptor Tyrosine Kinase in Epithelial Cancer Cells Drives Efferocytosis in a Gain-of-Function Capacity
  • Mammary epithelial cell phagocytosis downstream of TGF-β3 is characterized by adherens junction reorganization
  • Stem cell proliferation is induced by apoptotic bodies from dying cells during epithelial tissue maintenance


  • Tyr724 phosphorylation of ELMO1 by Src is involved in cell spreading and migration via Rac1 activation
  • Corpse Engulfment Generates a Molecular Memory that Primes the Macrophage Inflammatory Response
  • TAM receptors regulate multiple features of microglial physiology
  • Complement Component C1q Regulates Macrophage Expression of Mer Tyrosine Kinase To Promote Clearance of Apoptotic Cells
  • The SAM domain inhibits EphA2 interactions in the plasma membrane
  • The E3 ligase Cbl-b and TAM receptors regulate cancer metastasis via natural killer cells
  • Aging Impairs Alveolar Macrophage Phagocytosis and Increases Influenza-Induced Mortality in Mice
  • M. tuberculosis-Induced Necrosis of Infected Neutrophils Promotes Bacterial Growth Following Phagocytosis by Macrophages
  • Interaction of macrophages with apoptotic cells inhibits transdifferentiation and invasion of lung fibroblasts
  • Estrogen promotes Leydig cell engulfment by macrophages in male infertility
  • Spatial control of Draper receptor signaling initiates apoptotic cell engulfment
  • Protective role of the Mer Tyrosine Kinase via efferocytosis in rheumatoid arthritis Models
  • MERTK tyrosine kinase receptor together with TIM4 phosphatidylserine receptor mediates distinct signal transduction pathways for efferocytosis and cell proliferation
  • Treatment-induced tumor cell apoptosis and secondary necrosis drive tumor progression in the residual tumor microenvironment through MerTK and IDO-1
  • STAT6 induces expression of Gas6 in macrophages to clear apoptotic neutrophils and resolve inflammation
  • Functions of TAM RTKs in regulating spermatogenesis and male fertility in mice


  • Stabilin-2 modulates the efficiency of myoblast fusion during myogenic differentiation and muscle regeneration
  • Store-independent modulation of Ca2þ entry through Orai by Septin 7
  • Insulin-like signaling promotes glial phagocytic clearance of degenerating axons through regulation of Draper
  • Fluctuation of Rac1 activity is associated with the phenotypic and transcriptional heterogeneity of glioma cells
  • Defining Single Molecular Forces Required to Activate Integrin and Notch Signaling
  • Spatiotemporal activation of Rac1 for engulfment of apoptotic cells
  • Plasma membrane tension orchestrates membrane trafficking, cytoskeletal remodeling, and biochemical signaling during phagocytosis
  • The phosphatidylserine receptor TIM4 utilizes integrins as coreceptors to effect phagocytosis
  • Integrins outside focal adhesions transmit tensions during stable cell adhesion
  • Cdc42-dependent modulation of rigidity sensing and cell spreading in tumor repopulating cells
  • Membrane-cytoskeleton mechanical feedback mediated by myosin-I controls phagocytic efficiency
  • Phosphatidylserine on viable sperm and phagocytic machinery in oocytes regulate mammalian fertilization


  • Mouse macrophages show different requirements for phosphatidylserine receptor Tim4 in efferocytosis
  • Tissue-Resident Macrophages Are Locally Programmed for Silent Clearance of Apoptotic Cells
  • Fibrocyte migration, differentiation and apoptosis during the corneal wound healing response to injury
  • Targeting of TAM Receptors Ameliorates Fibrotic Mechanisms in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis
  • The Pathogenesis of Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Mice
  • Secretoglobin 3A2 suppresses bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis by transforming growth factor beta signaling down-regulation
  • Activated human T lymphocytes inhibit TGF-β induced fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation via prostaglandins D2 and E2
  • CD24 signalling through macrophage Siglec-10 is a target for cancer immunotherapy
  • TGFβ1 reinforces arterial aging in the vascular smooth muscle cell through a long-range regulation of the cytoskeletal stiffness


  • Cell surface-expressed phosphatidylserine as therapeutic target to enhance phagocytosis of apoptotic cells
  • Annexin I Is an Endogenous Ligand that Mediates Apoptotic Cell Engulfment
  • Brain angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1) is a pattern recognition receptor that mediates macrophage binding and engulfment of Gram-negative bacteria
  • Mer receptor tyrosine kinase mediates both tethering and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells
  • Estrogen promotes Leydig cell engulfment by macrophages in male infertility


  • RhoG activates Rac1 by direct interactionwith the Dock180-binding protein Elmo
  • A Link between the Cytoplasmic Engulfment Protein Elmo1 and the Mediator Complex Subunit Med31
  • p85a recruitment by the CD300f phosphatidylserine receptor mediates apoptotic cell clearance required for autoimmunity suppression
  • Ephexin4 and EphA2 mediate cell migration through a RhoG-dependent mechanism
  • Small GTPase CDC-42 promotes apoptotic cell corpse clearance in response to PAT-2 and CED-1 in C. elegans
  • Diversification of TAM receptor tyrosine kinase function


  • Role of AMP-activated protein kinase in mechanism of metformin action
  • Identification of a Primary Target of Thalidomide Teratogenicity
  • AMPK inhibits cardiac hypertrophy by promoting autophagy via mTORC1
  • Annexin1 regulates DC efferocytosis and cross-presentation during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection


  • Identification of the orphan GPCR, P2Y10 receptor as the sphingosine-1-phosphate and lysophosphatidic acid receptor
  • Phosphatidylserine receptor BAI1 and apoptotic cells as new promoters of myoblast fusion
  • Signal-dependent nuclear export of a histone deacetylase regulates muscle differentiation
  • A lysine-rich motif in the phosphatidylserine receptor PSR-1 mediates recognition and removal of apoptotic cells
  • Autophagy genes function sequentially to promote apoptotic cell corpse degradation in the engulfing cell
  • Engulfment and Cell Motility Protein 1 (ELMO1) Has an Essential Role in the Internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium Into Enteric Macrophages That Impact Disease Outcome
  • The matricellular protein CCN1 mediates neutrophil efferocytosis in cutaneous wound healing
  • Engulfing Astrocytes Protect Neurons from Contact-Induced Apoptosis following Injury
  • Cardiomyocytes induce macrophage receptor shedding to suppress phagocytosis
  • Protection of Insects against Viral Infection by Apoptosis-Dependent Phagocytosis
  • Human Type IV P-type ATPases That Work as Plasma Membrane Phospholipid Flippases and Their Regulation by Caspase and Calcium
  • S. aureus blocks efferocytosis of neutrophils by macrophages through the activity of its virulence factor alpha toxin


  • Constructing modular and universal single molecule tension sensor using protein G to study mechano-sensitive receptors
  • Rac1 switching at the right time and location is essential for Fc γ receptor-mediated phagosome formation
  • Context-dependent compensation among phosphatidylserine recongnition receptors
  • Cigarette smoke attenuates phagocytic ability of macrophages through down-regulating Milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8) expression
  • T Cell Zone Resident Macrophages Silently Dispose of Apoptotic Cells in the Lymph Node